Why is furniture called furniture?
The word furniture comes from the French fourniture, which means equipment. The English word Furniture is derived from the French word fourniture, the noun form of fournir, which means to supply or provide. Therefore, furniture in French means supplies or provisions. The use in English, which refers specifically to household objects, is specific to that language; French and other Romance languages, as well as German, use variants of the word meubles, which derives from the Latin mobilia, which means movable property.
furniture is considered a form of decorative art and can be the product of artistic design. It may also serve a symbolic or religious purpose. In conjunction with furnishings such as clocks and lighting , domestic furniture works to create comfortable and convenient interior spaces. History Furniture has been a part of the human experience
The practice of using natural objects as rudimentary furniture probably dates back to the beginning of human civilization. Early humans are likely to have used tree stumps as seats, rocks as rudimentary tables, and mossy areas for sleeping. During the late Paleolithic or early Neolithic period, for about 30,000 years, people began to build and carve their own furniture, using wood, stone and animal bones. The earliest evidence of the existence of constructed furniture is a figure of Venus found at the site of Gagarino in Russia, depicting the goddess seated, on a throne.
The stone dressers were regarded as the most important as it symbolically faces the entrance in each house and is therefore the first item seen when entering, perhaps displaying symbolic objects, including decorative artwork such as several Neolithic Carved Stone Balls also found at the site.
A similar statue of a seated woman was found in Catal Huyuk in Turkey, dating from 6000 to 5500 BC. C. The inclusion of such a seat in the figures implies that these were already common artifacts of that time. A range of unique stone furniture has been excavated in Skara Brae, a Neolithic village in Orkney, Scotland.
The site dates from 3100 to 2500 BC. C. and, due to the scarcity of wood in Orkney, the inhabitants of Skara Brae were forced to build with stone, a readily available material that could be easily worked and turned. in items for use inside the home.
Each home displays a high degree of sophistication and was equipped with a wide variety of stone furniture, ranging from cabinets, vanities and beds to shelves, stone seats and limpet tanks. The stone chest of drawers was considered to be the most important, since it symbolically faces the entrance of each house and is therefore the first element seen when entering, perhaps showing symbolic objects, including decorative works of art, such as several Neolithic carved stone balls that are also found on site. The seated woman of Çatalhöyük, a figure discovered in Turkey and dated approximately 6000 BC, is evidence that furniture existed in the Neolithic period. Cucuteni ritual figures on miniature chairs; 4900-4750 BC; painted pottery; Piatra Neamț Archaeology Museum (Piatra Neamț, Romania) Cucuteni statuette on a miniature chair; 4750-4700 BC; pottery; discovered in Târpești (present-day Romania); Piatra Neamț Archaeology Museum Ancient furniture has excavated from the Phrygian burial mound of the 8th century .
C., the Midas Mound, in Gordion, Turkey. The pieces found here include tables and serving stands with inlay. There are also surviving works of the Assyrian palace of Nimrud from the 9th and 8th centuries to. The oldest surviving carpet, the Pazyryk carpet, was discovered in a frozen tomb in Siberia and dates between the 6th and 3rd centuries to.
Civilization in ancient Egypt began with the cleaning and irrigation of the land along the banks of the Nile River, which began around 6000 BC. By then, Nile Valley society was already involved in organized agriculture and in the construction of large buildings. In this period, the Egyptians in the southwest corner of Egypt were herding cattle and also building large buildings. The mortar was in use around 4000 a.
Recovered ancient Egyptian furniture includes a third millennium B.C.E. bed discovered in the Tarkhan Tomb, a c. 2550 B.C.E. gilded set from the tomb of Queen Hetepheres, and a c. 1550 B.C.E. stool from Thebes. Ancient Greek furniture design beginning in the second millennium B.C.E. , including beds and the klismos chair,
The inhabitants of the Nile Valley and the Delta were self-sufficient, growing barley and emery (an early variety of wheat) and storing it in pits covered with reed mats. They raised cattle, goats and pigs and woven sheets and baskets. Evidence of furniture from the Predynastic period is scant, but samples from First Dynasty tombs indicate an already advanced use of furniture in houses of the time. Pelike, which represents a child carrying furniture for a symposium (party of drinks), at the Ashmolean Museum (Oxford, United Kingdom) Funerary stele in which someone appears who remains in a klismos, from around 410 to 400 BC, in the National Archaeological Museum (Athens, Greece) Treasure chest with a sacrifice of Jupiter represented in he; 1st century AD; wood, iron and bronze, with a miniature; from Pompeii; National Archaeological Museum of Naples (Naples, Italy) Gothic chest; late 15th century; wood; 30.2 x 29.2 x 39.4 cm; Metropolitan Museum of Art Along with the other arts, the Italian Renaissance of the 14th and 15th centuries marked a revival in design, often inspired by the Greco-Roman tradition.
Along with the other arts, the Italian Renaissance of the fourteenth and fifteenth century marked a rebirth in design, often inspired by the Greco-Roman tradition.
A similar explosion of design and revival of culture in general occurred in northern Europe, starting in the 15th century. Cassone (chest); c, 1550-1560; carved and partially gilded walnut; 86.4 x 181.9 x 67.3 cm; Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York) Rococo console; 18th century; gilded carved wood, marble top; 63.2 × 60 × 25.4 cm; Metropolitan Museum of Art Rococo chest of art; by Charles Cressent; c, 1745-1749; pine and oak veneered with amaranth and bois satin, walnut, oak, pine; gilded bronze, portoro marble top; 87.6 x 59.7 x 57.8 cm; Louis XVI style folding stool from the Metropolitan Museum of Art (flexible); 1786; carved and painted beech wood, pink silk cover; 46.4 × 68.6 × 51.4 cm; Metropolitan Museum of Art The 19th century is generally defined by Renaissance styles concurrent, including Gothic, Neoclassicism and Rococo. Design reforms at the turn of the century introduced the Aesthetic movement and the Arts and Crafts movement. Art Nouveau was influenced by both movements.
Shaker style furniture also became popular during this time in North America. Empire desk chair; c, 1805-1808; mahogany, gilt bronze and satin velvet upholstery; 87.6 × 59.7 × 64.8 cm; Egyptian Renaissance coin cabinet, Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York); 1809—1819; mahogany (probably Swietenia mahagoni), with silver applied and inlaid; 90.2 x 50.2 x 37.5 cm; Metropolitan Museum of Art Chair (Gothic Revival); 1845—1865; walnut frame with upholstered seat and back; dimensions unknown; Huntington Museum of Art table (Huntington, West Virginia, USA). UU.) (Rococo Renaissance); c, 1880; wood, ormolu and lacquer; 68.9 x 26.99 x 38.42 cm; Los Angeles County Museum of Art Chair (Los Angeles, USA). UU.) (Art Nouveau); by Arthur Heygate Mackmurdo; c, 1883; mahogany; 97.79 x 49.53 x 49.53 cm; Los Angeles County Museum of Art A unique consequence of postmodern furniture design is Live edge, which heralds a return to natural forms and textures within the home.
Asian furniture has quite a different story. The traditions of India, China, Korea, Pakistan, Indonesia (Bali and Java) and Japan are some of the best known, but places like Mongolia and the countries of Southeast Asia have unique facets of their own. Chinese low-back armchair; late 16th-18th century (late Ming to Qing dynasty); Huanghuali rosewood; Arthur M. Sackler Gallery (Washington D.C.)
The antiques available generally date back to the Tokugawa era. Chinese furniture is traditionally better known for more ornate pieces. The use of uncarved wood and bamboo and the use of heavy lacquers are well-known Chinese styles.
Traditional Japanese furniture is well-known for its minimalist style, extensive use of wood, high-quality craftsmanship and reliance on wood grain instead of painting or thick lacquer. Japanese chests are known as Tansu, and are some of the most sought-after of Japanese antiques.
Transitional furniture is intended to fill a place between Traditional and Modern tastes. Asian history Asian furniture has a quite distinct history.
It is worth noting that Chinese furniture varies dramatically from one dynasty to the next. Chinese ornamentation is highly inspired by paintings, with floral and plant life motifs including bamboo trees, chrysanthemums, waterlilies, irises, magnolias, flowers and branches of cherry, apple, apricot and plum, or elongated bamboo leaves.
In addition to the functional design, the seats have had an important decorative element from ancient times to the present day. This includes carved and sculpted pieces intended to be works of art, as well as the style of the seats to indicate social importance, with older figures or leaders granted the use of specially designed seats. Louis XVI sofa; designed around 1786, woven between 1790 and 1791, sofa frame from the second half of the 19th century; carved and gilded wood, with wool and silk; 107.3 × 191.5 × 71.1 cm; Metropolitan Museum of Art. The next time you rest in your living room, ask yourself a question.
The seventeenth century, in both Southern and Northern Europe, was characterized by opulent, often gilded Baroque designs that frequently incorporated a profusion of vegetal and scrolling ornament. Starting in the eighteenth century, furniture designs began to develop more rapidly. Although there were some styles that belonged primarily to one nation, such as Palladianism in Great Britain , others, such as the Rococo and Neoclassicism were perpetuated throughout Western Europe.
Why is your favorite place to relax called a sofa? Who named that sofa, or for that matter, the bedroom desk or mom's grandfather clock? And why do some furniture have several names? Exploring the origins of furniture names can often reveal something about their history. From the Colonial trundle bed to the romantic hope chest, every name has a story to tell. Let's start with your comfortable sofa, which is also called sofa, daybed and sofa. Sofas first came into vogue in the 17th century and the name comes from the old French sofa, which means lying down.
The first sofas were designed for both sleeping and resting. While sofa is the favorite name for this furniture in the U.S. UU. That name comes from the Arabic soffa, which is a raised part of the floor that is padded with rugs and pillows.
Another name is diván, which comes from the Persian word dēvān, now dīwān. The diwan was originally the private council that had to sit in the comfortable elevated space. Jane Austen might have referred to the couch as a couch, as in the place to settle down for a long discussion of eligible bachelors just arrived in town. The word desk may evoke a chest of drawers, but that's not how it started.
In fact, observing its original use could explain why bureau is both the name of furniture and certain organizations, such as the Federal Bureau of Investigation. Europeans are more likely to think of the office as a desk. And the name probably evolved from the old French word burel, to the dark brown fabric that was traditionally used to cover desks. In the 17th century, offices were simple flat desks with drawers underneath.
These desks were used in offices, as a place to write letters and store paper and ink. Since offices had offices, French offices were also known as offices and, by extension, so did larger office and organization complexes. As time went on, some furniture manufacturers added additional drawers. In the 18th century, the versatile English office often had four deep drawers with a desk or bookcase.
An elaborate style of furniture that followed the Baroque in the 18th century, characterised by scroll and foliate motifs.
The nineteenth century is usually defined by concurrent revival styles, including Gothic, Neoclassicism, Rococo, and the Eastlake Movement. The design reforms of the late century introduced the Aesthetic movement and the Arts and Crafts movement.
While they still had a handy writing surface, these offices also provided storage. The desk was also called secretary, from the Latin word secretarius, which meant a scribe or employee entrusted with confidential information. While some office designs acquired drawers, the secretary kept them to a minimum, but also often included an upper storage department closed by doors. By extension, the women employed to write on these “ladies' desks” became known as secretaries.
With the advent of typewriters, Victorians quickly needed more surface space to accommodate them, and larger desks became popular. The secretaries employed to use the novel typewriter were called typewriters or typewriter girls. The original antique French wardrobe described a room where the robes of the powerful were kept together with gold and other valuables. The room contained places to hang clothes, as well as shelves and storage places.
Traditional and Modern tastes.
The first three-quarters of the twentieth century are often seen as the march towards Modernism . One unique outgrowth of post-modern furniture design is a return to natural shapes and textures.
Postmodern design, intersecting the Pop art movement, gained steam in the 1960s and 70s, promoted in the 80s by groups such as the Italy-based Memphis movement . Transitional furniture is intended to fill a place between Traditional and Modern tastes.
Over time, the closet became a standalone piece of furniture and the word was also used to describe the clothes contained within that piece of furniture. Of course, the association with the protection of something valuable remained long enough for C, S. Lewis will use a closet to obscure a magical portal in his Narnia books. During the Middle Ages, children can sleep in the pull-out trundle bed that is located under the larger bed where the head of the family slept.
Several members of a family can sleep together like this, with the youngest child in a crib next to the bed. Even the rich and powerful did not sleep alone, as their servants slept close to them willing to serve and defend them. If this sounds a little close for added comfort, it's worth noting that in the days leading up to central heating, that proximity provided warmth during bitter winters. The trundle bed was first mentioned in 16th century writings.
The name of this item may seem more obvious, since it's a chest used to collect things for an event you hope will happen, but that anticipated event might not have the same meaning as it did in the days when women used to live at home until they were married. The hope chest, also known as the glory box, was used to store the bride's trousseau, as well as practical items for her new home. Contents may include bedding, bedspreads, candlesticks, and sometimes plates. A young woman often received such a chest when she reached marriageable age, and then she could start purchasing or manufacturing the necessary items.
Although the Windsor chair has been associated with American colonial homes, it has real associations in English history. The Windsor chair features a very simple design with a back and sides consisting of rotated axles attached to a solid sculpted seat. Chairs are likely to have been handmade since the 16th century in Wales and England, but they did not acquire style until the 18th century. The chair is named after the English city of Windsor, which is home to Windsor Castle, one of the official residences of the British royal family.
In fact, royalty has been rumored to have played a role in the chair's popularity. Legend has it that King George I (1660-1672) was caught in a storm and found refuge in a cabin. There he was offered a simple chair with an axle that was very different from those found in his court. He was so impressed that he asked his furniture makers to copy the chairs for Windsor Castle.
By the 1730s, the chair had arrived in the United States, where it quickly became the most popular piece of furniture in the colony. Colonial craftsmen further refined the design. An example of furniture is a sofa, chair, or table. This picture shows the Larsson bedroom furniture set from Stewart's new Scandinavian-style furniture line.
Kevin Sharkey, Executive Creative Director of Merchandising at Martha Stewart Living Omnimedia, says product names are an important part of creating an experience for our consumers. A lot of thought is given to names that suggest an inspiring and welcoming way of life. The Hellenistic influence on Byzantine furniture can be seen through the use of acanthus leaves, palmettes, laurel and olive leaves as ornaments. Very few wooden furniture survives intact, but there is evidence that a variety of woods were used, such as maple, citron, beech, oak and holly.
Although there were some styles that belonged mainly to one nation, such as palladianism in Great Britain or Louis Quinze in French furniture, others, such as Rococo and Neoclassicism, were perpetuated throughout Western Europe. Architectural elements are used in furniture, at first with purely decorative motifs, but later as structural elements. Seats are among the oldest known types of furniture, and authors such as the Encyclopædia Britannica consider it the most important. The first pieces of furniture to be preserved are found in the houses of Skara Brae in Scotland, and include closets, chests of drawers and beds, all built of stone.
Furniture is also used to hold objects at a height convenient for working (such as horizontal surfaces on the floor, such as tables and desks) or for storing things (e.g. Excavations of Herculaneum and Pompeii in 1738 and 1748 revealed Roman furniture, preserved in the ashes of the eruption of Vesuvius in 79 AD. Antique furniture from this period is known from works of art, such as a figure of Venus found in Russia, depicting the goddess on a throne. They had removed the old furniture from his old downstairs room and put it upstairs months before he was born.
The 1738 and 1748 excavations of Herculaneum and Pompeii introduced Roman furniture, preserved in the ashes of the 79 C.E. eruption of Vesuvius, to the eighteenth century. Early Modern Europe The furniture of the Middle Ages was usually heavy, oak , and ornamented with carved designs.
Rome took over the production and distribution of Greek furniture, and the border between the two is blurred. There is something so distinctive about the development of taste in French furniture, marked by the three styles to which the three monarchs have given the name Louis Quatorze, Louis Quinze and Louis Seize. . .